Arvid Kappas

Prof. Arvid Kappas

Emotion, Cognition, and Social Context Lab (X Lab)
School of Business, Social & Decision Sciences
Constructor University Bremen gGmbH
Campus Ring 1 | 28759 Bremen | Germany
Phone number
+49 421 200-4334
Fax number
+49 421 200-3303
Email Address
Reimar Lüst Hall, 257 | Res. IV, 116
Research Interests

At the heart of the science of emotion is empirical research. Theory building and empirical investigations are mutually dependent - one cannot progress without the other. As I have mentioned elsewhere, emotion research can take many forms.

My own research focuses on (1) the information processing that causes the (2) subjective changes, (3) physiological reactions, and (4) expressive behaviors that we associate with emotion. However, each of these response domains presentes complexities in their own right. For example, facial expressions are not only determined by emotions, but also by social and cultural processes. Hence, it is necessary to go beyond emotional processes in the case of each of these domains - in this example questions can be as simple as what happens to facial expressions when others are present. What if they are friends, or what if they are strangers. Knowing more about this will help to understand how behaviors change when we are emotional. If we do not know enough about the general case, we will not know whether emotional facial expressions in social context are a special case, due to the emotion, or follow other expressions, even some that we might not consider emotional.

Much of my recent work relates to affective computing or social robotics. It turns out that in order to interact better with machines, they should be sensitive to certain behaviors and the design of robots or their behavior benefits from understanding how humans interact. Working with machines is a great way to better understand humans


University Education

1989-1992 First Swiss Graduate College in Psychology (Emotion psychology) 1989-1992 Approches expérimentales dans l'étude de la parole, post-graduate seminar, coordination romande en psychologie, Suisse 1

1989-1992First Swiss Graduate College in Psychology (Emotion psychology)
1989-1992Approches expérimentales dans l'étude de la parole, post-graduate seminar, coordination romande en psychologie, Suisse
1986-1989Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Dartmouth College, Hanover NH, USA (first year funded by a fellowship of the DAAD)
1980-1986Dipl. Psychology, Fachbereich Psychologie, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Germany
1984Research internship, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, (funded by Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes)
1983Research internship, University of California, Berkeley (funded by DAAD and CIEE)


Research and Teaching Positions

2003-presentFull Professor of Psychology, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Germany
2001-2003Senior Lecturer, Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK
1999Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg, Austria
1999Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology, University "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy
1997-2001Associate Professor, École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada
1992-1997Assistant Professor, École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada
1990-1992Visiting Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Université de Fribourg, Suisse
1989-1992Assistant/Maître Assistant, FPSE, Université de Genève, Suisse


Funded Projects


  • 2023- ARC: Robots as a Social Group: Implications for Human-Robot Interaction
  • 2018-2022 H2020 MSCA ITN: ANIMATAS  (Advancing intuitive human-machine interaction with human-like social capabilities for education in schools)
  • 2012-2016 FP7-ICT: EMOTE (EMbOdied-perceptive Tutors for Empathy-based learning)
  •  2010-2013 FP7-ICT: eCUTE - Education in Cultural Understanding Technology Enhanced
  •  2009-2013 FP7-ICT: CYBEREMOTIONS - Collective Emotions in Cyberspace



Selected Publications

Kappas, A., & Gratch, J. (2023) These Aren’t The Droids You Are Looking for: Promises and Challenges for the Intersection of Affective Science and Robotics/AI. Affective Science 4, 580–585.

Poluektova, O., Kappas, A., & Smith, C. A. (2023). Using Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory to Explain Individual Differences in the Appraisal of Problem-Focused Coping Potential. Emotion Review, 15(4), 302-312.

Stower, R., Abdelghani, R., Tschopp, M., Evangelista, K., Chetouani, M., & Kappas, A. (2022).Exploring space for robot mistakes in child robot interactions. Interaction Studies, 23 (2), 243-288.

Krumhuber E. G., & Kappas A. (2022). More what Duchenne smiles do, less what they express. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 17 (6), 1566-1575.

Tatarian, K., Stower, R., Rudaz, D., Chamoux, M., Kappas, A., & Chetouani, M. (2022). How does modality matter? Investigating the synthesis and effects of multi-modal robot behavior on social intelligence. International Journal of Social Robotics, 14, 893–911.

Dukes, D., Abrams, K., Adolphs, R., Ahmed, M. E., Beatty, A., Berridge, K. C., Broomhall, S., Brosch, T., Campos, J. J., Clay, Z., Clément, F., Cunningham, W. A., Damasio, A., Damasio, H., D’Arms, J., Davidson, J. W., de Gelder, B., Deonna, J., de Sousa, R., … Sander, D. (2021). The rise of affectivism. Nature Human Behaviour, 5(7), 816–820.

Stower, R., Calvo-Barajas, N., Castellano, G., & Kappas, A. (2021). A Meta-analysis on Children’s Trust in Social Robots. International Journal of Social Robotics. 13, 1979-2001.

Vanman, E. J., Kappas, A., & Ito, T. A. (2021). Social neuroscience is more than the study of the human brain: The legacy of John Cacioppo. Social Neuroscience, 16(1), 1–5.

Kappas, A., Stower, R., & Vanman, E.J. (2020). Communicating with robots: What we do wrong and what we do right in artificial social intelligence and what we need to do better. In R.J. Sternberg & A Kostić (Eds.). Social intelligence and nonverbal communication (pp. 233-254). Springer International Publishing.

Vanman, E.J., & Kappas, A. (2019). “Danger, Will Robinson!” The Challenges of Social Robots for Intergroup Relations. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 13 (8) .

Swiderska, A., Krumhuber, E.G., & Kappas, A. (2019). Behavioral and physiological responses to computers in the ultimatum game. International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, 15, 33-45.

D’Mello, S., Kappas, A., & Gratch, J. (2018). The affective computing approach to affect measurement. Emotion Review, 10(2), 174–183.

Krumhuber, E.G., Tsankova, E., & Kappas, A. (2018). Examining subjective and physiological responses to norm violation using text-based vignettes: Norm Violation Vignettes. International Journal of Psychology, 53(1), 23–30.

Obaid, M., Aylett, R., Barendregt, W., Basedow, C., Corrigan, L.J., Hall, L., Jones, A., Kappas, A., Küster, D., Paiva, A., Papadpoulos, F., Serholt, S., & Castellano, G. (2018). Endowing a robotic tutor with empathic qualities: Design and pilot evaluation. International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, 15(06), 1850025.

Liu, T., & Kappas, A. (2018). Estimating Gradual-Emotional Behavior in One-Minute Videos with ESNs. ArXiv:1805.08690 [Cs].

Tsankova, E., Vanman, E.J., & Kappas, A. (2018). Interaction of stereotypical trustworthiness, facial resemblance, and group membership in the perception of trustworthiness and other traits. Journal of Trust Research, 8(1), 31–44.

Kappas, A. (2017). The psychology of (Cyber)emotions. In J. Holyst (ed.) Cyberemotions (pp. 37-52). Springer International Publishing.

Küster, D. & Kappas, A. (2017). Measuring emotions online: Expression and Psychophysiology. In J. Holyst (ed.) Cyberemotions (pp. 71-93). Springer International Publishing.

Spieler, I., Scheibe, S., Stamov-Roßnagel, C., & Kappas, A. (2017). Help or hindrance? day-level relationships between flextime use, work-nonwork boundaries, and affective well-being. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(1), 67-87,

Garcia, D., Kappas, A., Küster, D., & Schweitzer, F. (2016). The dynamics of emotions in online interaction. Royal Society Open Science, 3(8), 160059.

Krumhuber, E., Tsankova, E., & Kappas, A. (2016 Examining subjective and physiological responses to norm violation using text-based vignettes: Norm Violation Vignettes. International Journal of Psychology, 53(1), 23–30.

Degens, N., Hofstede, G. J., Beulens, A., Krumhuber, E., & Kappas, A. (2016). Don’t Be a Stranger-Designing a Digital Intercultural Sensitivity Training Tool that is Culture General. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 9(2), 120–132.

Kappas, A., Küster, D., Dente, P., & Basedow, C. (2016). Shape of things to come: Facial electromyography vs automatic facial coding via FACET.

Chołoniewski, J., Chmiel, A., Sienkiewicz, J., Hołyst, J., Küster, D., & Kappas, A., (2016). Temporal Taylor's scaling of facial electromyography and electrodermal activity in the course of emotional stimulation. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 90, 91-100 doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2016.04.023.

Tsankova, E. & Kappas, A. (2016). Facial skin smoothness as an indicator of perceived trustworthiness and related traits. Perception, 45(4), 400-408.

Papadopoulos, F., Küster, D., Corrigan, L. J., Kappas, A., & Castellano, G. (2016). Do relative positions and proxemics affect the engagement in a Human-Robot collaborative scenario? Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems, 17(3), 321–347.

Alves-Oliveira, P., Küster, D., Kappas, A., & Paiva, A. (2016). Psychological Science in HRI: Striving for a More Integrated Field of Research.

Calvo, R.A. D'Mello, S. Gratch, J. & Kappas, A. (Eds.) (2015), Oxford Handbook of Affective Computing. New York, NY, Oxford University Press.

Calvo, R.A. D'Mello, S. Gratch, J., & Kappas, A. (2015), Introduction to affective computing. In Calvo, R.A., D'Mello, S. Gratch, J., & Kappas, A. (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Affective Computing (pp. 1-8). New York, NY, Oxford University Press.

Charlton, J. P., Kappas, A. & Swiderska, A. (2015). Does computing anger have social elements? A comparison with driving anger. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34, 294-303. doi: 10.1080/0144929X.2014.895421

Hall, L., Tazzyman, S., Hume, C., Endrass, B., Lim, M., Hofstede, G.J., Paiva, A., Andre, E., Kappas, A., & Aylett, R. (2015). Learning to overcome cultural conflict through engaging with intelligent agents in synthetic cultures. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 25, 291-317. doi: 10.1007/s40593-014-0031-y

Krumhuber, E., Kappas, A., Hume, C., Hall, L., & Aylett, R. (2015). From Non-human to Human: Adult’s and Children’s Perceptions of Agents Varying in Humanness. In W.-P. Brinkman, J. Broekens, & D. Heylen (Eds.), Intelligent Virtual Agents (Vol. 9238, pp. 471–474). Springer International Publishing.

Krumhuber, E. G., Swiderska, A., Tsankova, E., Kamble, S. V., & Kappas, A. (2015). Real or artificial? Intergroup biases in mind perception in a cross-cultural perspective. PLoS ONE, 10(9), e0137840.

Chmiel, A., Sienkiewicz, J., Paltoglou, G., Buckley, K., Skowron, M., Thelwall, M., Kappas, A., & Holyst, J.A. (2014). Collective emotions online: Dynamics of the crowd in social media. In N. Agarwal, M. Lim, & R.T. Wigand (Eds.) Online collective action (pp. 59-74). Vienna, Austria: Springer.

Corrigan, L. J., Basedow, C., Küster, D., Kappas, A. Peters, C., & Castellano, G. (2014). Mixing implicit and explicit probes: Finding a ground truth for engagement in social human-robot interactions. In Proceedings of the 2014 ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction (pp. 140-141). New York, NY: ACM.

Küster, D., & Kappas, A. (2014). What could a body tell a social robot that it does not know? In A. Holzinger, S. H. Fairclough, D. Majoe, & H. P. da Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Physiological Computing Systems (pp. 358-367). SciTePress Digital Library. doi:10.5220/0004892503580367

Küster, D., Krumhuber, E., Kappas, A. (2014). Nonverbal behavior online: A focus on interactions with and via artificial agents and avatars. In Kostic A. & D. Chadee (eds.) Social psychology of nonverbal communication (pp. 272-302). New York, N.Y.:Palgrave Macmillan.

Skowron, M., Rank, S., Swiderska, A., Küster, D., & Kappas, A. (2014). Applying A Text-Based Affective Dialogue System in Psychological Research: Case Studies in the Context of Decision Making and Social Exclusion. Cognitive Computation, 6(4), 872–891.

Thelwall, M., & Kappas, A. (2014). The role of sentiment in the social web. In C. von Scheve, C. & M. Salmela, (Eds.) Collective Emotions: Perspectives from psychology, philosophy, and sociology (pp. 375-388). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Aylett, R., Lim, M. Y., Hall, L., Tazzyman, S., Endrass, B., Andre, E., Ritter, C.M., Nazir, A., Paiva, A., Hofstede, J.J., & Kappas, A. (2014). Werewolves, cheats, and cultural sensitivity. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2014). (Vol. 2, pp. 1085-1092). International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.

Castellano, G., Paiva, A., Kappas, A., Aylett, R., Hastie, H., Barendregt, W., Nabais, F., & Bull, S. (2013). Towards empathic virtual and robotic tutors. In H C Lane, K Yacef, J Mostow, & P Pavlik (Eds.) Artificial Intelligence in Education (pp. 733-736). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Kappas, A. (2013). Social regulation of emotion: Messy layers. Frontiers in Psychology, 4.

Kappas, A., Krumhuber, E., & Küster, D. (2013). Facial behavior. In J. A. Hall, & M. L. Knapp (Eds.) Handbook of Nonverbal Communication (pp. 131-166). Berlin & New York: de Gruyter/Mouton.

Küster, D., & Kappas, A. (2013). Measuring emotions in individuals and Internet Communities. In T. Benski, & E. Fisher (eds.) Internet and emotions (pp. 48-61). New York, NY: Routledge.

Gobron, S., Ahn, J., Thalmann, D., Skowron, M., & Kappas, A. (2013). Impact study of nonverbal facial cues on spontaneous chatting with virtual humans. Journal of Virtual Reality and Broadcasting, 10 (6).

Krumhuber, E., Kaiser, S., Kappas, A., & Scherer, K.R. (2013). Body and speech as expression of inner states. In C. Müller, A. Cienki, E. Fricke, Ladewig, S., D. McNeill, & S. Tessendorf (Eds.) Body – Language – Communication: An International Handbook on Multimodality in Human Interaction (Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science (HSK) 38/1 (pp. 551-564). Berlin & New York: de Gruyter/Mouton. DOI: 10.1515/9783110261318.551

Swiderska, A., Krumhuber, E. G., & Kappas, A. (2013). When humans become objects: Out-group effects in real and artificial faces. Proceedings of the 5th Humaine Association Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII) (pp. 612-617). doi:10.1109/ACII.2013.107

Skowron, M., Theunis, M., Rank, S., & Kappas, A. (2013). Affect and social processes in online communication - Experiments with an affective dialog system. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, 4, 267-279. DOI: 10.1109/T-AFFC.2013.16

Paltoglou, G., Theunis, M., Kappas, A., & Thelwall, M. (2013). Predicting emotional responses to long informal text, IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing. 4, 107-115.

Tsankova, E., Aubrey, A.J., Krumhuber, E., Möllering, G., Kappas, A., Marshall, D., & Rosin, P.L. (2013). Facial and Vocal Cues in Perceptions of Trustworthiness. In J.-I. Park & J. Kim (Eds.), Computer Vision—ACCV 2012 Workshops (Vol. 7729, pp. 308–319). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Krumhuber, E. G. , Kappas, A. & Manstead, A. S. R. (2013). Effects of dynamic aspects of facial expressions: A review. Emotion Review, 5(1), 41–46.

Thelwall, M., Buckley, K., Paltoglou, G., Skowron, M., Garcia, D., Gobron, S., Ahn, J., Kappas, A., Küster, D., & Holyst, J.A. (2013). Damping sentiment analysis in online communication: Discussions, monologs and dialogs. Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing / Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 7817, 1-12. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Müller, M. G. , Kappas, A. & Olk, B. (2012). Perceiving press photography: a new integrative model, combining iconology with psychophysiological and eye-tracking methods. Visual Communication, 11, 307–328.

Krumhuber, E., Hall, M., Hodgson, J., & Kappas, A. (2012). Designing interface agents: Beyond realism, resolution, and the uncanny valley. In D. Reichardt (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Emotion and Computing – Current Research and Future Impact (pp. 18-25), Saarbrücken, Germany.

Tsankova, E., Möllering, G., Kappas, A., Krumhuber, E., Aubrey, A., Manstead, A., Marshall, D., & Rosin, P. (2012). Visual and paralinguistic cues, confidence, and perceived trustworthiness. In S. Castaldo, D. Ferrin, G. Möllering,  R. Priem, D. Skinner, A. Weibel, & R. Zolin (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Trust Within and Between Organizations (pp. 1-15), Milan, Italy.

Kappas, A. (2011). Emotion is not just an alarm bell—it's the whole tootin' fire truck, Cognition and Emotion, 25(5), 785-788. doi:10.1080/02699931.2011.587641.

Kappas, A., & Krämer, N.C. (2011). Introduction: Electronically mediated face-to-face communication: Issues, questions, and challenges. In A. Kappas & N.C. Krämer (Eds.) Face-to-face communication over the Internet: Emotions in a web of culture, language and technology (pp. 1-13). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kappas, A., & Krämer, N.C. (Eds.)(2011). Face-to-face communication over the Internet: Emotions in a web of culture, language, and technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Olk, B. & Kappas, A. (2011). Eye tracking technology as a tool for visual research. In E. Margolis & L. Pauwels (Eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Visual Research Methods (pp. 433-451). London: SAGE Publications.

Küster, D. & Kappas, A. (2011). Peripher-physiologische Verfahren während und nach der Bildbetrachtung. Physiologische Messungen: Herzrate, Hautleitfähigkeit und verwandte Verfahren. In T. Petersen & C. Schwender (Eds.), Die Entschlüsselung der Bilder: Methoden zur Erforschung visueller Kommunikation. Ein Handbuch (pp. 372-383). Köln: Von Halem Verlag.

Chmiel, A., Sienkiewicz, J., Thelwall, M. Paltoglou, G., Buckley, K., Kappas, A., & Holyst, J.A. (2011). Collective Emotions Online and Their Influence on Community Life. PLoS ONE, 6 (7), e22207. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022207

Müller, M.G., & Kappas, A. (2011). Visual emotions – emotional visuals: Emotions, pathos formulae, and their relevance for communication research. In K. Döveling, C. von Scheve, & E.A. Konijn (Eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Emotions and the Mass Media (pp. 310-331). Abingdon, OX; UK: Routledge.

Kappas, A. (2011). Emotion and regulation are one! Emotion Review, 3(1), 17-25.

Hall, L., Jones, S. J., Aylett, R., André, E., Paiva, A., Hofstede, G. J., Kappas, A., Nakano, Y., & Nishida, T. (2011). Fostering empathic behavior in children and young people: Interaction with intelligent characters embodying culturally specific behavior in virtual world simulations. INTED2011 Proceedings, 2804-2814.

Thelwall, M., Buckley, K., Paltoglou, G., Cai, D. & Kappas, A. (2010). Sentiment in short strength detection informal text. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61, 2544-2558. (*most cited paper)

Kappas, A. (2010). Smile when you read this, whether you like it or not: Conceptual challenges to affect detection. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, 1, 38-41, doi:10.1109/T-AFFC.2010.6

Kappas, A. (2009). Ausdruck: Kommunikations- und Regulationsmedium. In G. Stemmler (Ed.) Enzyklopädie der Psychologie: Psychologie der Emotionen (pp.387-443). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Hess, U., & Kappas, A. (2009). Appraisaltheorien: Komplexe Reizbewertung und Reaktionsselektion In G. Stemmler (Ed.) Enzyklopädie der Psychologie: Psychologie der Emotionen (pp. 247-290). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Kappas, A. (2009). Mysterious tears: The phenomenon of crying from the perspective of social neuroscience. In Thorsten Fögen (Ed.), Tears in the Graeco-Roman World (pp. 419-438). Berlin & New York: de Gruyter.

Kappas, A., & Olk, B. (2008). The concept of visual competence as seen from the psychological and brain sciences. Visual Studies, 23, 162-173.

Kappas, A. (2008). Psssst! Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are actually the same person! A tale of regulation and emotion. In M. Vandekerckhove, C. von Scheve, S. Ismer, S. Jung, & S. Kronast (Eds.) Regulating emotions: Social necessity and biological inheritance (pp. 15-38). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Kappas, A., & Poliakova, N. (2008). Judgments of the affective valence of spontaneous vocalizations: The influence of situational context. In K. Izdebski (Ed.) Emotions in the human voice, Volume 1 (pp. 109-122). San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing.

Kappas, Arvid, & Olk, B. (2008). The concept of visual competence as seen from the perspective of the psychological and brain sciences. Visual Studies, 23(2), 162–173.

Krumhuber, E., Manstead, A.S.R., Cosker, D., Marshall, D., Rosin, P., & Kappas, A. (2007). Facial dynamics as indicators of trustworthiness and cooperative behavior. Emotion, 7(4), 730–735.

Krumhuber, E., Manstead, A.S.R., & Kappas, A. (2007). Temporal aspects of facial displays in person and expression perception: The effects of smile dynamics, head-tilt, and gender. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 31(1), 39–56.

Kappas, A. (2007). What is an emotion? Many-splendored things. Emotion Researcher. 22 (1-2), 7.

Kappas, A. (2006). Geheimnisvolle Tränen: Das Phänomen des Weinens aus der Sicht der Neurosemiotik. Zeitschrift für Semiotik, 28, 295-309.

Shields, S.A., & Kappas, A. (Eds.) (2006). Magda B. Arnold's Contribution to Emotion Research and Theory. New York and Hove: Psychology Press.

Kappas, A. (2006). Appraisals are direct, immediate, intuitive, and unwitting ... and some are reflective ... Cognition and Emotion, 20(7), 952–975.

Shields, S.A., & Kappas, A. (2006). Magda B. Arnold’s contributions to emotions research. Cognition and Emotion, 20, 898-901.

Kappas, A., & Müller, M.G. (2006). Bild und Emotion - Ein neues Forschungsfeld. Publizistik, 51, 3-23.

Nouwen, A., Cloutier, C., Kappas, A., Warbrick, T., & Sheffield, D. (2006). The effects of focusing and distraction on cold-pressor induced pain in chronic back pain patients and controls. Journal of Pain, 7, 62-71.

Krumhuber, E. & Kappas, A. (2005). Moving smiles: The role of dynamic components for the perception of the genuineness of smiles. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 29(1), 3–24.

Kappas, A., & Descôteaux, J. (2004). Les promesses et limites de l'étude de l'émotion en laboratoire. In G. Kirouac (Ed.). Cognition et émotions (pp. 129-156). Coimbra , Portugal: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra.

Kappas, A. (Ed.) (2004). Proceedings of the XIth Conference of the International Society for Research on Emotions, 16-20 August 2000, Quebec City. Amsterdam: ISRE publications/University of Amsterdam.

Kappas, A. (2004). Can emotions be unconscious? Yes! Next question please… Emotion Researcher, 19 (1), 12-13.

Kappas, A., & Descôteaux, J. (2003). Of butterflies and roaring thunder: Nonverbal communication in interaction and regulation of emotion. In Philippot, P., Coats, E.J., & Feldman, R.S. (Eds.) Nonverbal behavior in clinical settings (pp. 45-74). New York: Oxford University Press.

Kappas, A. (2003). What facial expressions can and cannot tell us about emotions. In M Katsikitis (Ed.), The human face: Measurement and meaning (pp. 215–234). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Kappas, A. (2002). The science of emotion as a multidisciplinary research paradigm, Behavioural Processes, 60(2), 85–98.

Kappas, A. (2001). A metaphor is a metaphor is a metaphor: Exorcising the homunculus from appraisal theory. In Scherer, K.R., Schorr, A., & Johnstone, T. (Eds.) Appraisal Processes in Emotion: Theory, Methods, Research (pp. 157-172). New York: Oxford University Press.

Kappas, A., Bherer, F., & Thériault, M. (2000). Inhibiting facial expressions: Limitations to the voluntary control of facial expressions of emotion. Motivation and Emotion, 24(4), 259–270.

Kappas, A. & Pecchinenda, A. (1999). Don’t wait for the monsters to get you: A video game task to manipulate appraisals in real time. Cognition and Emotion, 13(1), 119–124.

Tarabulsy, G.M., Tessier, R., & Kappas, A. (Ed.) (1998). Concepts, méthodes et intuition dans l’étude du tempérament de l’enfant. Presses de l’Université du Québec.

Kappas, A. (Ed.) (1997). Special issue: The communicative function of facial expression: Empirical challenges. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 21, (3).

Kappas, A. (1997). The fascination with faces: Are they really windows to our soul? Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 21, 157-161.

Smith, C.A., McHugo, G.J., & Kappas, A. (1996). Epilogue: Overarching themes and enduring contributions of the Lanzetta research program. Motivation and Emotion, 20(3), 237–253.

Tarabulsy, G.M., Tessier, R., & Kappas, A. (1996). Contingency detection and the contingent organization of behavior in interactions: Implications for socioemotional development in infancy. Psychological Bulletin, 120(1), 25–41.

Kappas, A. & Hess, U. (1995). Nonverbal aspects of oral communication. In U.M. Quasthoff (Ed.), Aspects of oral communication (pp. 169-180). Berlin: De Gruyter.

Hess, U., Banse, R., & Kappas, A. (1995). The intensity of facial expression is determined by underlying affective state and social situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 280-288.

Kappas, A., Hess, U., Barr, C.L., & Kleck, R.E. (1994). Angle of regard: The effect of vertical viewing angle on the perception of facial expression. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 18(4), 263–280.

Kappas, A. & Hess, U. (1992). Emotionskontrolle. Psychomed, 4, 91-95.

Hess, U., Kappas, A., McHugo, G.J., Lanzetta, J.T., & Kleck, R.E. (1992). The facilitative effect of facial expression on the self-generation of emotion. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 12(3), 251–265.

Kappas, A., Hess, U., & Scherer, K.R. (1991). Voice and Emotion. In R. Feldman & B. Rimé (Eds.), Fundamentals of nonverbal behavior (pp. 200 - 238). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kappas, A. (1991). The illusion of the neutral observer: On the communication of emotion. Cahiers de Linguistique Française, 12, 153-168.

Kappas, A., Hess, U., & Kleck, R.E. (1990). The periscope-box: A non-obtrusive method of providing an eye-to-eye video perspective. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 22(4), 375–376.

Hess, U., Kappas, A., Kleck, R.E., McHugo, G.J., & Lanzetta, J.T. (1989). An analysis of the encoding and decoding of spontaneous and posed smiles: The use of facial electromyography. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 13(2), 121–137.

Hess, U., Kappas, A., & Scherer, K.R. (1988). Multichannel communication of emotion: Synthetic signal production. In K.R. Scherer (Ed.), Facets of emotion: Recent research (pp. 161 - 182). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Scherer, K.R., & Kappas, A. (1988). Primate vocal expression of affective state. In D. Todt, P. Goedeking, & D. Symmes (Eds.), Primate vocal communication (pp. 171 - 194). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Standke, R., Kappas, A., & Scherer, K.R. (1984). Die Attribution von Stimm- und Sprechermerkmalen in Abhängigkeit von Stimmqualität und Kontinuität des Sprechflusses. In A. Schick & K.P. Walcher (Eds.), Beiträge zur Bedeutungslehre des Schalls (pp. 389-402). Bern: Lang. (The attribution of voice- and speaker-characteristics dependent on voice quality and continuity of speech)


Published Abstracts (refereed)

Laban, G., Kappas, A., Morrison, V., & Cross, E.S. (2022). User experience of human-robot long-term interactions. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI '22). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, pp. 287–289.

Laban, G., Morrison, V., Kappas, A., & Cross, E.S. (2022). Informal Caregivers Disclose Increasingly More to a Social Robot Over Time. In Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA '22). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, Article 329, 1–7.

Stower, R., Tatarian, K., Rudaz, D., Chamoux, M., Chetouani, M., & Kappas, A. (2022). Does what users say match what they do? Comparing self-reported attitudes and behaviours towards a social robot. In: 2022 31st IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), pp. 1429–1434 (2022).

Stower, R., & Kappas, A. (2021).“CozmoNAOts: Designing an autonomous learning task with social and educational robots”. Proceedings of Interaction Design and Children, IDC 2021, Athens. Greece, pp. 542-546, 2021. Doi:

Wallkötter S, Stower R, Kappas A, & Castellano G. (2020). A robot by any other frame: framing and behaviour influence mind perception in virtual but not real-world environments. Proc 2020 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, vol. 2020. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. pp. 609–618.

Stower R, & Kappas A. (2020). “Oh no, my instructions were wrong!” An exploratory pilot towards children’s trust in social robots. 2020 29th IEEE International Conference on Robot-Human Interaction and  Communication. Naples, Italy; 2020. pp. 641–646.

Krishna, S., Pelachaud, C. & Kappas, A. (2020). FRACTOS: Learning to be a Better Learner by Building Fractions. In Companion of the 2020 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI '20). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 314–316.

Krishna, S., Pelachaud, C., & Kappas, A. (2019). Towards an Adaptive Regulation Scaffolding through Role-based Strategies. In Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA '19). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 264–267.

Liu, T., & Kappas. A. (2018). Predicting engagement breakdown in HRI using thin-slices of facial expressions. The Workshops of the Thirty-Second AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (pp. 37-43). Palo Alto, CA, USA: AAAI Press.

Hall, L.,  Hume, C., Tazzyman, S., Deshmukh, A., Janarthanam, S., Hastie, H., Aylett, R.,  Castellano, G., Papadopoulos, F.,  Jones, A.,  Corrigan, L.G., Paiva, A., Alves Oliveira, P.,  Ribeiro, T.,  Barendregt, W., Serholt, W. & Kappas, A. (2016). Map Reading with and Empathic Robot Tutor. International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, Christchurch, New Zealand, Extended Abstracts, March 2016

Jones, A., Küster, D., Basedow, C. A., Alves-Oliveira, P., Serholt, S., Hastie, H., Lee, C.,  Barendregt, W., Kappas, A., Paiva, A., & Castellano, G. (2015). Empathic Robotic Tutors for Personalised Learning A Multidisciplinary Approach. In A. Tapus, E. André, J.-C. Martin, F. Ferland, & M. Ammi (Eds.), Social Robotics (Vol. 9388, pp. 285–295). Springer International Publishing.

Basedow, C., & Kappas, A. (2014). I feel when “it” feels: Physiological responses elicited by human and artificial entity stimuli. Psychophysiology, 51, S41.

Kappas, A., Krumhuber, E., & Tsankova, E. (2014). Facial responses to cultural norm violations: A vignette approach to probe for changes in ethnocultural empathy. Psychophysiology, 51, S41.

Deshmukh, A., Castellano, G., Kappas, A., Barendregt, W., Nabais, F., Paiva, A., Ribeiro, T., Leite, I., & Aylett, E. (2013). Towards empathic artificial tutors. In HRI '13 Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction (pp. 113-114). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press.

Castellano, G., Paiva, A., Kappas, A., Aylett, R., Hastie, H., Barendregt, W., Nabais, F. and Bull, S. (2013). Towards Empathic Virtual and Robotic Tutors. In Artificial Intelligence in Education (pp. 733-736). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Kappas, A., Kuester, D., Basedow, C., & Dente, P. (2013). A Validation Study of the Affectiva Q-Sensor in Different Social Laboratory Situations. Psychophysiology, 50, S78.

Kappas, A., Küster, D., Theunis, M., & Tsankova, E. (2012). Cyberemotions: An analysis of synchronous computer mediated communication and dyadic interaction. Psychophysiology, 49, S79.

Garcia, D., Kappas, A., Küster, D., Theunis, M., Tsankova, E., Garas, A., Kuppens, P., & Schweitzer, F. (2012). Measuring the dynamics of individual emotions under online interaction through subjective and physiological responses. Psychophysiology, 49, S79.

Kappas, A. (2011). To our emotions, with love: How affective should affective computing be? Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction 4th International Conference 2011 Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 6874, 1.

Kappas, A. , Tsankova, E. , Theunis, M. & Küster, D. (2011). Cyberemotions: Subjective and physiological responses elicited by contributing to online discussion forums. Psychophysiology, 48, S27.

Küster, D. , Kappas, A. , Theunis, M. & Tsankova, E. (2011). Bilateral plantar electrodermal activity elicited by contributing to online discussion forums: Do males and females recover asymmetrically? Psychophysiology, 48, S27.

Ahn, J. , Borowiec, A. , Buckley, K. , Cai, D. Chmiel, A. , Czaplicka, A. , Dabrowski, G. , Garas, A. , Garcia, D. , Gobron, S. , Kappas, A. , Küster, D. , et al (2011). CyberEmotions: Collective emotions in cyberspace. Procedia Computer Science, 7, 221-222.

Kappas, A., Küster, D., Theunis, M, & Tsankova, A. (2010). CYBEREMOTIONS: Subjective and physiological responses to reading online discussion forums, Psychophysiology, 47, S101.

Küster, D., & Kappas, A. (2007). Implicit sociality overrides explicit relationship goals in a task involving conscious control of corrugator supercilii: Diverging paths of automaticity and control towards friends vs. strangers. Psychophysiology, 44, S46.

Kappas, A., & Küster, D. (2006). Priming “we”or “they”affects level of orbicularis oculi activity in response to funny films: An investigation on the relationship between emotions and facial activity. Psychophysiology, 43, S20.

Xenias, D. & Kappas, A (2005). Autonomic activation during a stressful task in varying sociality. Journal of Psychophysiology, 19, 70-71.

Kappas, A. (2004). Intra- and interpersonal determinants and consequences of facial activation. Psychophysiology, 41, S12.

Pecchinenda, A., & Kappas, A. (2004). Determinants of task engagement: Studying the relationship between appraisals and physiological activity in an ongoing task. In A. Kappas (Ed.) Proceedings of the XIth Conference of the International Society for Research on Emotions, 16-20 August 2000, Quebec City (pp. 40-43). Amsterdam: ISRE publications/University of Amsterdam.

Debruille, J.B., Hess, U., Phillips, M., Perrett, D., & Kappas, A. (2001). Processing facial expressions of emotion in normal and psychiatric populations: From brain to facial reactions. Psychophysiology, 38, S8.

Kappas, A., & Pecchinenda, A. (2000). Rules of disengagement: Cardiovascular changes as a function of appraisals and nine levels of difficulty of an interactive video game task. Psychophysiology, 37, S58.

Kappas, A., Pecchinenda, A., & Bherer, F. (1999). The wizard of oz: Appraisals and emotions in a voice-controlled video game. Psychophysiology, 36, S65.

Bherer, F., Kappas, A., & Doré, F.Y. (1999). How do evaluations of stimulus relevance become automatic in the absence of classical conditioning? A supraliminal/subliminal probing paradigm in a conceptual learning task. Psychophysiology, 36, S.33.

Kappas, A. & Pecchinenda, A. (1998). Zygomaticus major activity is not a selective indicator of positive affective state in ongoing interactive tasks. Psychophysiology, 35, S44.

Pecchinenda, A. & Kappas A. (1998). Impact of competitive and collaborative instructions on appraisals and physiological activity during dyadic interactions in a video game. Psychophysiology, 35, S65.

McHugo, G., Kelsey, R., Friedman, M., McDonagh-Coyle, A., Jalowiec, J., & Kappas, A. (1998). Effect of trauma-related content in an active coping task on facial and autonomic reactivity in women with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychophysiology, 35, S57.

Girard, E., & Kappas, A. (1998). Importance de l’intensité maximale, finale et moyenne dans le jugement d’expression faciales dynamiques. Science et Comportement, 27, S87.

Poliakova, N, Binet, L., & Kappas, A. (1998). L’effet du contexte situationnel sur l’évaluation de vocalisations affectives spontanées. Science et Comportement, 27, S179.

Kappas, A. & Smith, C.A. (1997). The psychophysiology of emotion: The role of stimulus relevance, motivational congruence, and coping potential. Psychophysiology, 34, S4.

Kappas, A. (1997). His master’s voice: Acoustic analysis of spontaneous vocalizations in an ongoing active coping task. Psychophysiology, 34, S5.

Bherer, F., Kappas, A., & Thériault, M. (1997). Inhibiting facial expressions: Voluntary control under explicit social demand. Psychophysiology, 34, S21.

Girard, E., Tassinary, L.G., Kappas, A., Gosselin, P. & Bontempo, D. (1997). The covert-to-overt threshold for facial actions: An EMG study. Psychophysiology, 34, S38.

Pecchinenda, A., & Kappas, A. & Smith, C.A. (1997). Effects of difficulty and ability in a dual-task video game paradigm on attention, physiological responses, performance, and emotion-related appraisal. Psychophysiology, 34, S70.

Kappas, A. (1996). The sociality of appraisals: Impact of social situations on the evaluation of emotion antecedent events and physiological and expressive reactions. In N. Frijda (Ed.), Proceedings of the IXth Conference of the International Society for Research on Emotions (pp. 116-120), Storrs: ISRE Publications.

Kappas, A. & Pecchinenda, A. (1996). The effect of sociality on event-related facial activity in the context of a video game. Psychophysiology, 33, S48.

Girard, E., Tassinary, L.G., Kappas, A., & Bontempo, D. (1996). A study of the ability to control precisely the contraction of muscles in different regions of the face. Psychophysiology, 33, S48.

Kappas, A. (1995). Event-related facial activity: In pursuit of componential approaches to the expression of emotional reactions. Psychophysiology, 32, S6.

Pecchinenda, A. & Kappas, A. (1995). How do you deal with monsters? Relating appraisals to subjective, expressive, and ANS variations. Psychophysiology, 32, S59.

Kappas, A. (1994). Computer assisted coding of behavior. In N. Frijda (Ed.), Proceedings of the VIIIth Conference of the International Society for Research on Emotions (pp. 158-161), Storrs: ISRE Publications.

Scherer, K.R., Mounoud, P., Stern, D., Kappas, A., Zinetti, A., & Ceschi, G. (1994). Emotional reactions to experimentally manipulated voice changes: A lab report on a cross-sectional study of infants between 5 and 14 months. In N. Frijda (Ed.), Proceedings of the VIIIth Conference of the International Society for Research on Emotions (pp. 337-341), Storrs: ISRE Publications.

Pecchinenda, A., Ferlazzo, F., & Kappas, A. (1994). Modulation of ERPs during categorization of prototypical and mixed emotional facial expressions. Psychophysiology, 31, S76.

Hess, U., Kappas, A., & Scherer, K.R. (1993). The relative dynamics of facial muscle activity in patterns of affective displays. Psychophysiology, 30. S34.

Banse, R., Hess, U., & Kappas, A. (1993). Friendship facilitates contagious laughter. Psychophysiology, 30. S15.

Kappas, A., & Schneider, K. (1992). Emotionaler Ausdruck und nonverbale Kommunikation in den 90ern. In L. Montada (Ed.), 38. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie, Band I (pp. 581-582). Trier: Hogrefe.

Kappas, A., Hess, U., & Banse, R. (1992). Skin conductance reactions to dynamic facial expressions revisited: Empathic responding or information processing ? Psychophysiology, 29, S42.

Hess, U., Kappas, A. Banse, R. (1992). Smile when you see that, stranger: Implicit audience and solitary smiling revisited. Psychophysiology, 29, S38.

Banse, R., Hess, U., & Kappas, A. (1992). A comparison of algorithms to identify the onsets of facial EMG activity. Psychophysiology, 29, S18.

Banse, R., Hess, U., & Kappas, A. (1992). Resonanzkatastrophen in der sozialen Interaktion: Zwei Experimente zum “hysterischen” Lachen. In L. Montada (Ed.), 38. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie, Band I (pp. 572). Trier: Hogrefe.

Hess, U., Kappas, A., & Banse, R. (1992). Physiologische Reaktionen auf den emotionalen Gesichtsausdruck Anderer: Eine Untersuchung zu Empathie und physiologischer Synchronization. In L. Montada (Ed.), 38. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie, Band I (pp. 573-574). Trier: Hogrefe.

Kappas, A. (1992). Analyse emotionaler Vokalisationen: Akustische Parameter vs. kategoriale Klassifikation. In L. Montada (Ed.), 38. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie, Band I (pp. 583-584). Trier: Hogrefe.

Kappas, A., Mounoud, P., Scherer, K. R., Stern, D. N., Bernauer, B., Hatt, G., & Zinetti, A. (1992). Multiple Operationalisierungen der Verletzung von Erwartungshaltungen bei Kleinkindern zwischen 5 und 14 Monaten: Ein Vergleich. In L. Montada (Ed.), 38. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie, Band I (pp. 392). Trier: Hogrefe.

Kappas, A., Hess, U., & Banse, R. (1991). Physiological reactions to dynamic facial expressions: A study on empathy and physiological synchronization. Psychophysiology, 28, S33.

Kappas, A. (1990). Ansätze zur Unterscheidung echter und unechter emotionaler Gesichtsausdrücke mittels EMG. In D. Frey (Ed.), Bericht über den 37. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie in Kiel 1990, Band I (pp. 459). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Kappas, A. (1990). Selbstkontrolle affektiver Zustände: Die Rolle des Gesichtsausdrucks. In D. Frey (Ed.), Bericht über den 37. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie in Kiel 1990, Band I (pp. 740-741). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Kappas, A., McHugo, G.J., & Lanzetta, J.T. (1989). Componential control and the modulation of emotional experience. Psychophysiology, 26, S37.

Kappas, A., McHugo, G.J., Lanzetta, J.T., & Hess, U. (1988). A new look at asymmetry of facial action: The use of EMG. Psychophysiology, 25, 459 - 460.

Hess, U., Kappas, A., McHugo, G.J., Lanzetta, J.T., & Kleck, R.E. (1988). A new look at felt and posed smiles: The use of EMG. Psychophysiology, 25, 454.

Kappas, A., Hess, U., McHugo, G.J., Lanzetta, J.T., & Kleck, R.E. (1987). The facilitative effects of facial expression on self-generated emotion. Psychophysiology, 24, 595.


Other Professional Activities

1988 - present: International Society for Research on Emotion (ISRE); program committee (1994-1996); Member of the executive committee (1998-2000) and program committee (1998-2000), President 2013-2015, reelected 2015-2017

1992 - present: Association for Psychological Science (originally American Psychological Society) (APS); Charter member; Fellow 2012

1995 - present: Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP); Fellow 2014

Membership and activities in several other professional associations and societies

Various editorial and reviewer activities for scientific journals and national and international funding bodies